"Making something... Nurturing something is really great. You can see and learn so many things from the process."
The Moon (月, Tsuki) is Earth's sole natural satellite.
It was formed as a result of the First or Giant Impact. After the Black Moon crashed into Earth, debris from both the Black Moon's outer layer, or carrier, and from the Earth was thrown into orbit where it eventually coalesced into the Moon.
In Rebuild of Evangelion
The Moon plays an expanded role in the New Theatrical Edition continuity.
Mare Tranquilitatis is the site of Nerv's 7th Branch Tabgha Base and its provisional excavation base. A giant humanoid, which superficially resembles Lilith due to the purple mask and the white material covering its body, is being kept here, along with Kaworu Nagisa and several mysterious coffin-like objects. A large red streak of unknown constitution (later confirmed to be blood) is also present, aligned with the excavation in which the Moon Giant reclines.
In Evangelion 2.0, the Moon Giant is being outfitted with an Evangelion armor and serves as the base for the creation of Eva Mark.06, piloted by Kaworu at the end of the movie to stop the ongoing Near Third Impact.
In Evangelion 3.0, the Moon itself has drastically changed in appearance. It appears to have either bloated enormously in size or is very close to the Earth. Its surface has turned into a large red grid-like pattern identical to the one on Lilith's body, and the bloodstain on the moon is far more prominent. It has an atmosphere with clouds and is spinning around its axis in a matter of seconds, something that should be physically impossible for an astronomical body of that size. The moon's appearance is a direct result of Near Third Impact although what process did this is left completely unexplained.